Layout, in the typography industry, means arrangement of text on newspaper, magazine, or book pages of a pre-defined size, with the composition of lines, titles, illustrations, etc. in compliance with the formatting or design.
With the development of digital technologies, desktop publishing with software like Ventura Publisher, Adobe PageMaker and QuarkXPress has become increasingly popular since the 1990s.
Scanning is one of the ways to enter information to a computer.
Scanning has become one of the main ways to enter data to a computer. Huge amounts of data are converted into digital files via scanners. For example, in full-color graphic arts, scanned images make up about 95% of the total volume of published data. Such files, with appropriate processing, can be transformed into any format used in information technologies. The following formats are used for presenting texts and graphic information: photographs, slides, drawings, etc.
Scanning as a unified end-to-end process falls into two independent operations – entering texts and graphic images to a computer.
Text Recognition is a technology of moving a hard copy of text to electronic format, which makes it possible to process the text by computer means.
When entering texts to a computer with a scanner, a user inevitably faces a number of problems. These problems can be tentatively divided into two groups.
Firstly, the document obtained will unavoidably contain errors. This is caused by a great variety of document types, dozens of fonts, presence of graphics in documents (photos, drawings, tables, etc.). If the original material for scanning is of low quality, as, for example, a fax copy, the number of errors will grow significantly. Proofreading for that will considerably increase the labor input for the whole project.
The second group of problems involves the equipment used to enter information, i.e. scanners, and text recognition and spellchecking software. Today, many companies produce the necessary equipment and develop software to solve these problems. Nevertheless, the problem is still lacking a satisfactory solution, and only certain types of documents allow handling them without readjustment.
Scanning color images is a more time consuming task. Generally, it consists of ensuring the best possible information readout from the source, i.e. readout of its gray-level and color range, as well as resolution. It is also desirable to correct any drawbacks of the source when required, in terms of future image utilization. For example, unwanted color shifts and gray-level imbalances can be removed, and typographic raster patterns can be suppressed.
Editing of graphics, such as drawings, tables, etc., is fulfilled to remove irrelevant lettering and other fragments, and insert additional elements, e.g. captions in the language of translation.